The Newberry Library in Chicago is currently running the Religious Change 1450-1700 project. In addition to over a hundred objects from their collection on display, the program is hosting a series of lectures on the impact religion and print, had on society. Recently, I had the opportunity to attend two such talks on the Reformation.
As summer is fast approaching, here are the books on my shelf waiting to be read!
1. Irena Backus, Leibniz: Protestant Theologian
Though best known for his philosophy, Backus offers a different perspective by examining Leibniz’s theology. Backus works through the relationship of Leibniz’s Lutheran theology and his philosophy, leading up to the Enlightenment.
My introduction to Flannery O’Connor happened later than for most others. While many became initiated to the writings of O’Connor in a college literature class, for me it was not until this past year. Perusing various audio books for my commute, I thought it was time to get acquainted with Flannery O’Connor.
What struck me first were the twisted yet relatable characters. Second, the themes of sin, redemption, faith, grace, etc., which lay as the foundation to O’Connor’s writings, had me constantly going back for more. Finally, her stories are the type that continually gnaw at you. Long after you stop reading, O’Connor’s words continue to work on you.
Like many, I have run into independent Catholics before, but I had never really grasped their existence. Eyebrows were raised when Mel Gibson established a church in California. I vaguely recall hearing about the ordination of Sinéad O’Connor. I completely overlooked the Santa Muerte reference in Breaking Bad, while my attention was fixed on Tuco’s bizarre cousins.
Independent Catholics are roughly split into 250 geographical areas, or “jurisdictions.” Since the 1890 United States census, where they were labelled “Other Catholics,” the best estimations put them at 1 million in the US. Julie Byrne’s The Other Catholics: Remaking America’s Largest Religion (Columbia University Press, 2016; source: publisher) takes a moment to study these independent Catholics.
1517 and the posting of his 95 Theses has often been seen as Martin Luther’s breaking point from Catholicism to Protestantism. Certainly, the 95 Theses contained many Protestant elements and voiced his concern over indulgences. These grievances are a result of Luther’s study and subsequent lectures of various books of the Bible. However, the act of posting on the Wittenberg church’s door was a common scholastic practice, intended as an invitation to discuss these matters further. Furthermore, this act lacked some of the theological conviction central to Luther after 1520.
Following these early years in which Luther worked out his evangelical theology (“Protestant” being a term used after 1529 when a number of princes and other governmental officials protested against Emperor Charles V), Luther was put on the defense. Whether it was the 1518 Diet of Augsburg and his dealing with Cardinal Cajetan or the 1519 Leipzig Disputation and his debate with Johann Eck of Ingolstadt, Luther was occupied with explaining, defending, and justifying his beliefs.
In light of the attack on Charlie Hebdo and the global impact it continues to have, there has been much talk about the role of satire in our society. When used well, satire allows for communication of ideas through the medium of humor, irony, and mockery. Not only does satire challenge the status quo, but accomplishes its objective in a manner that is received and heard by an audience which otherwise would not.
Perhaps one of the greatest examples of satire can be found in Erasmus’ The Praise of Folly. Though written in the sixteenth century, Praise of Folly continues to offer modern readers a wealth of insight (I am assigning Erasmus’ work in two classes this semester). Erasmus’ use of satire is not a diatribe against ecclesiastical or governmental institutions. Nor is Erasmus writing to merely display his literary skill (Erasmus’ comments on the relationship between folly and authors can be found on p.82-84). Rather, Praise of Folly should be seen as an exercise in cultural hermenutics, which uses the medium of satire and the counter-cultural theme of folly.
In recent years, the study of global Christianity has reshaped the way we conceive of not only the Christian religion, but the discipline of church history itself. It has provided the important corrective to view Christianity not as a Western religion but as a world religion. By exploring church history through a global lens, we have much to gain in how we think about the historical developments in Christianity.
Todd Hartch offers an insightful look at global Christianity in The Rebirth of Latin American Christianity (Oxford Studies in World Christianity, Oxford University Press, 2014; source: publisher) by focusing on the region of Latin America in the last sixty years. In this book, Hartch tells the ironic story of how Protestant activism from 1950–2010 made Latin America not only more Protestant than it had ever been but also more Catholic.