Exploring Church History

Reflections on History and Theology

Tag: Augustine

Summer Reading List

As summer is fast approaching, here are the books on my shelf waiting to be read!

Irena Backus, Leibniz, Protestant Theologian

1. Irena Backus, Leibniz: Protestant Theologian

Though best known for his philosophy, Backus offers a different perspective by examining Leibniz’s theology. Backus works through the relationship of Leibniz’s Lutheran theology and his philosophy, leading up to the Enlightenment.

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The Biblical Accommodation Debate in Germany: Interpretation and the Enlightenment

I’m pleased to announce that The Biblical Accommodation Debate in Germany: Interpretation and the Enlightenment will be published by Palgrave Macmillan. Since the days of the Enlightenment, one of the most significant aspects of interpreting the Bible has been the question of how God accommodated his revelation to humanity. Since God is infinite and humans are finite, God had to somehow communicate with his creatures in a way they could understand. Ever since the time of Augustine, accommodation has been a crucial doctrine for interpreters of the Bible who also seek to understand the Bible’s authority, and it remains so today. However, the contemporary discussion of the doctrine is hampered by an ignorance of its history and how a seventy-five-year debate reshaped accommodation for the modern era. My book aims to redress this misunderstanding.

In this book I set out to fill a lacuna in the history of biblical interpretation. To date, there is no work on the doctrine of accommodation during the Enlightenment. Given that eighteenth-century Germany witnessed the greatest concentrated discussion of accommodation, all in the context of historical criticism, this void in the history of biblical interpretation is quite unfortunate. My book meets this need by examining the accommodation debate of 1761–1835 in conjunction with the German Enlightenment and the rise of historical criticism.

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A Review of Bryan M. Litfin’s Getting to Know the Church Fathers

Bryan Litfin, Getting to Know the Church FathersThe history of the church is long. Unfortunately, our modern reception often goes through a Marcionian filter that weeds out vast portions of our heritage. Particularly, the church fathers are neglected due to their unfamiliarity or refusal to fit nicely into our evangelical box.

Bryan M. Litfin’s Getting to Know the Church Fathers: An Evangelical Introduction (Baker Academic, 2016, 2nd ed.; source: publisher) attempts to reverse this trend. The focus of the work is to introduce the church fathers to a wide evangelical audience. For Litfin, the key to understanding the church fathers is to look beyond just a doctrinal treatment of the fathers, but also to learn of their context and how they lived out their theology.

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The Trinity and the Church: A Review of Adam Ployd’s Augustine, the Trinity, and the Church

Augustine, the Trinity, and the ChurchAugustine is a common source for any discussion of the Trinity. It helps that he wrote a book called On the Trinity. For good or bad, the consensus understands Augustine as a pivotal figure in early Trinitarianism, especially in a post-Nicene context.

The Donatist controversy is not discussed at quite the same level as Augustine and the Trinity, but is a common area of Augustine studies. Geoffrey G. Willis wrote on the issue, and the matter is addressed in any of the standard biographies. What we do not see often is a study that combines the two.

Adam Ployd’s Augustine, Trinity, and the Church (Oxford, 2015; source: publisher) falls in line with works on the relationship between the Trinity and the church. Examples of such studies are Miroslav Volf, After Our Likeness: The Church as the Image of the Trinity and Jürgen Moltmann, The Trinity and the Kingdom. Ployd’s study is not a progression of Volf or Moltmann, for to do so would be anachronistic. Rather, Ployd takes a look at Augustine within his post-Nicene context.

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Confessions Read by Philosophers: A Review of Augustine’s Confessions, Philosophy in Autobiography

Augustine's ConfessionsIt is hard to imagine a single text more influential than the Confessions. Of course there is the Bible or the Declaration of Independence, but, Confessions rivals any text apart from divine revelation or nation forming documents.

Contributing to the allure of the Confessions is the autobiographical nature of the work. Not entirely an autobiography, the first half recounts Augustine’s life. Secondly, there is a diversity of disciplines which are attracted to the Confessions. One only has to look at Rousseau’s Confessions to witness these two factors.

These elements are also present in Augustine’s Confessions: Philosophy in Autobiography (Oxford, 2014; source: publisher). The perspective of these philosophers provides a welcome contribution to the study of Augustine’s Confessions.

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Biographies on Augustine

Peter Brown, Augustine of HippoAnticipating a review of Augustine’s Confessions: Philosophy in Autobiography, I thought I would spend a moment talking about two biographies. The dominate biography has been Peter Brown’s Augustine of Hippo (1967). Deservingly so, Brown’s work remains as one of the leading sources for the life of Augustine and a great entry point to Augustinian scholarship. While Augustine of Hippo still holds much value, one can also profit much from Serge Lancel’s biography St. Augustine (1999).[1]  By no means is Brown’s biography obsolete, but rather, Lancel’s biography is quite adept at being a suitable alternative to Brown.

Serge Lancel, St. AugustineAn immediate advantage of Lancel’s St. Augustine over Peter Brown’s Augustine of Hippo is the availability of resources. Neither Brown nor Bonner were able to profit from the Divjak letters. The 1975 discovery, by Johannes Divak, of 29 letters  which 27 were previously unknown adds to our understanding of Augustine as a person, especially from 419-428. Whereas previous portrayals could tend to show a rigid and hardened polemicist, the Divak Letters reveals a more personal and caring Augustine.

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