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Johann Georg Hamann and Time

Johann Georg Hamann

Johann Georg Hamann

I have never been big on time travel movies. Don’t get me wrong, the thought of time travel is intriguing. But the convoluted nature of some of these films makes it hard to get past the many inconsistencies. I am more than willing to adhere to the film’s understanding of time, but when the storyline breaks its own rules, that’s when I bail ship (now I’m the one being inconsistent, but I did not mind About Time).

Theologians and theoreticians attempts at understanding time is nothing new and will surely continue in the future. One can turn to Augustine’s thoughts on the matter in the Confessions, or more modern discussions of A Theory and B Theory. Into this mix, I would like to throw in Hamann’s reflections on time.

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Biblical Hermeneutics: Craig G. Bartholomew and Johann Georg Hamann

Craig G. Bartholomew, Introducing Biblical HermeneuticsIt is always nice to see a discussion of Johann Georg Hamann. Craig G. Bartholomew’s address is no different. I was leafing through Bartholomew’s latest Introducing Biblical Hermeneutics: A Comprehensive Framework for Hearing God in Scripture, when I was pleasantly surprised to see a short treatment of the “Magus of the North.” People may be familiar with Bartholomew’s The Drama of Scripture: Finding Our Place in the Biblical Story, a text that I have assigned this semester. Bartholomew’s latest is a thorough hermeneutic.

Bartholomew situates his treatment of Hamann in his chapter on the relationship between philosophy and hermeneutics. His task is not one of originality. Rather, Bartholomew seeks to highlight a neglected but significant voice in philosophy and hermeneutics. Thus, Bartholomew includes much information that can be found elsewhere, including John R. Betz’s After Enlightenment: The Post-Secular Vision of J. G. Hamann and my posts.

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Johann Georg Hamann on Eros and Sexual Holiness Continued

Hamann, Essay of a Sibyl on MarriagePicking up where we left off (see the previous post), we continue our discussion of Hamann’s wedding present to Johann Friedrich Hartknoch and Albertine Toussaint.  The unconventional gift was a short work interpreting Genesis 1 and 2 through the guise of a sibyl. Hartknoch, being Hamann’s publisher, found the gift worth publishing in 1775. We first took a look at how Hamann understood the relationship between God and Eros. Now we turn to the issues of the image of God and marriage.

 

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“Wondrous as Love, and Mysterious as Marriage!”: Johann Georg Hamann on Eros and Sexual Holiness

Hamann, Essay of a Sibyl on MarriageIn the first of a two-part series, I will discuss Johann Georg Hamann’s Essay of a Sibyl on Marriage (1775) and his theology of sexual holiness.

Wedding gifts run the gamut from fine china to kitchen appliances, from cheese domes to French presses. I am not sure what one gets someone in eighteenth–century Prussia, but what Johann Georg Hamann gifted Johann Friedrich Hartknoch is as good as any. In the early hours of August 26, 1774 Hamann was awaken by Hartknoch and his bride, Albertine Toussaint. Overjoyed by their visit and recent good news, Hamann welcomed his guests with a promise of an essay to commemorate their nuptials.

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“Wondrous like Love, and Mysterious like Marriage”: Johann Georg Hamann on Sexual Holiness and the Image of God

This Saturday I have the opportunity to present a paper at the Midwest Region Evangelical Theological Society conference. This year’s theme is “The Church and its Call to Sexual Holiness.” My paper, “’Wondrous like Love, and Mysterious like Marriage!’: Johann Georg Hamann on Sexual Holiness and the Image of God,” examines Hamann’s work Essay of a Sibyl on Marriage (1775).

The work, like the majority of Hamann’s corpus, is an occasional piece. Hamann was awakened early one morning by the arrival of unexpected guests. The guests were Johann Friedrich Hartknoch and Albertine Toussaint, who had just gotten married. In honor of their nuptials Hamann set out to write on marriage, a wedding gift fitting for Hamann’s publisher, Hartknoch.

The Essay of a Sibyl on Marriage plays off of Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel’s essay “Über die Ehe” (1774; On Marriage) but also uses Genesis 2 as the foundation for the work. Hamann argues that Eros is a matter of divine love, witnessed in the Trinity and creation. This is not to say that God participates in Eros, but rather, divine love defines Eros. Human expressions of Eros must originate from the divine image in which we are created and the divine command to procreate.

As Eros is rooted in the love of the Trinity and the Trinity’s act of creation, human expression of Eros must not deviate from this foundation. However, Eros is part of the human makeup. It is not antagonistic to what it means to be human. At the same time, no amount of human love can produce a rich and vibrant expression of Eros. Nor should Eros be understood as a postlapsarian alteration due to sin. For Hamann, Eros is not a passion of love but a quality of love.

Eros, as a human characteristic, is solely due to the fact that we are created in God’s image. The “pensive god of love” “took counsel with himself” to proclaim: “Let us make human beings, an image, which is like us.”[1] This is where Eros becomes part of the human makeup. We are created in God’s image to possess, experience, and express Eros. Love and Eros is part of what it means to be created in God’s image. In other words, the question of sexual identity is not merely a matter of hetero, homo, or bi. Such categories have not fully perceived the issue of sexual identity. Rather, sexual identity is a matter of divine identity.

[1] Johan Georg Hamann, Sämtliche Werke, 6 vols., ed. Josef Nadler (Vienna: Herder, 1949-57), III, 199; Gen 1:26

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Hamann on Kant’s Enlightenment

In the December issue of the Berlinische Monatsschrift, Johann Friedrich Zöllner pondered the question ‘what is enlightenment?’[1] While this remark found in a footnote received much attention, it was Kant’s response which became the hallmark answer to the question.[2] In December of 1784 Kant presented his “An Answer to the Question: ‘What Is Enlightenment?’[3]

Though Hamann never sought to answer Zöllner’s original question, he did react to Kant’s essay. Hamann’s response, however, is not found in a subsequent publication but rather in a letter. Christian Jakob Kraus (1753-1807), professor of practical philosophy at Königsberg and mutual friend of Kant and Hamann, had mailed Kant’s essay to Hamann. On December 18, 1784 Hamann sent his thanks to Kraus along with his opinion of the essay.[4] This letter expounded Hamann’s thoughts on Kant’s metaphor of self-incurred immaturity, the role of the guardian, and the juxtaposition of public and private reason.

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Metacritique: Hamann on Kant’s Three Purisms

As Hamann arranged for the publication  of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason (1781) with his publisher Johann Friedrich Hartknoch, it was his hope that Kant’s reading of Hume would lead Kant to the same conclusions as Hamann. In 1780, Hamann had begun a translation of Hume’s Dialogues and Natural History of Religion (1779), but due to a rival translation he gave up the project. Despite never completing the translation, Kant requested it in its partial form while writing his first Critique. However, to Hamann’s disappointment the Critique was not what he had expected.

After specifically requesting the proofs to be sent separately from Kant’s package, to avoid awkwardness, Hamann immediately read and reviewed the work.[1] He finished his review on the first of July, several weeks before receiving a copy directly from Kant. Despite completing his review Hamann never published it on account of their friendship and Kant’s financial generosity towards his son’s education.

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Socratic Memorabilia: Hamann on the Wisdom of Ignorance

Soctraic MemorabiliaPicking up from where we left off, part 1 ,1759 was a significant year for Johann Georg Hamann. After a dissolved engagement, Hamann moved back to Königsberg to take care of his father. Over the summer, Hamann was berated by longtime friend and would-be brother-in-law, Christoph Berens, to renege his recent conversion. In support of these efforts, Immanuel Kant stepped in as an appeal to Hamann’s intellect. Hamann rebuffed the two, the latter being the only one who would remain on good terms. The Socratic Memorabilia is not only Hamann’s response to their endeavors, but the initiation to a lifelong career of writing.

Before addressing Socrates’ life, Hamann takes a moment to examine the discipline of history. According to Hamann, history serves as a revelation of God’s truth. Coupling history with nature he states, ‘As nature was given us to open our eyes, so history was given to us to open our ears.’[1] The significance of properly understanding history is not merely an issue of accuracy. Rather, as God’s revelation, we must understand that history is a reflection of ‘God’s invisible being, his eternal power and Godhead.’[2]

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Socrates, Metacriticism, and the Enlightenment: Johann Georg Hamann and Kantian Reason

Johann Georg HamannThe significance of Kantian thought in modern theology continues to be a fixture in the discipline. For instance, Gary Dorrien’s Kantian Reason and Hegelian Spirit: The Idealistic Logic of Modern Theology (2012) presents Kantian and Hegelian philosophy as origins of modern theology. Dorrien traces Kantian critical reason and Hegelian idealism to figures such as Friedrich Schleiermacher, Albrecht Ritschl, Ernst Troeltsch, Paul Tillich and Karl Barth. His work and other similar literature map out a cohesive progression from Enlightenment philosophy to modern theology.

Undoubtedly, there are many problems when attempting to advance such a unified proposal. Apart from giving the false appearance that those in this chosen line of history remained consistent among themselves, it also marginalizes dissenting voices. For instance, current Enlightenment studies are increasingly more aware of the various Christian elements during this period.

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Johann Georg Hamann: Theologian, Philosopher, and Enlightener

Johann Georg HamannGiven that Johann Georg Hamann was born on this day in 1730, I thought it fitting to briefly address the “Magus of the North.”

As a member of the German Enlightenment, Hamann was mentor to Johann Gottfried Herder and Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi. He served as a catalyst for the Sturm und Drang. Deemed one of the leading minds of the eighteenth century by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Hamann was a significant influence on the young Goethe and many other German Romanticists. Søren Kierkegaard recognized Hamann as the greatest humorist and was singled out as the one he had learned most from.

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Philosophy and Theology: A Review of John Frame’s A History of Western Philosophy and Theology

John Frame, A History of Western Philosophy and Theology

John Frame, A History of Western Philosophy and Theology

Full disclosure, I am not a philosopher. Far from it. However, the history of philosophy has always been an interest of mine. Whether it was working my way through Frederick Copleston’s history or the intricacies of the Hamann-Kant dialogues, the history of philosophy has been a topic I regularly return to.

John M. Frame’s A History of Western Philosophy and Theology (P & R Publishing , 2015; source: publisher) is a reminder both of my love for the history of philosophy and my inadequacy as a philosopher. Frame provides a wide sweep of the discipline, yet detailed attention to key philosophers and philosophies.

This is all standard fare for a history of philosophy. What distinguishes this history is the author. Frame, known more for his work in theology, offers a uniquely Christian and theological perspective on the history of philosophy.

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Douglas H. Shantz, An Introduction to German Pietism

shantz comp rev.inddThough a bit under the radar Pietism studies has been going through major revisions in recent years. The persistent depiction of Pietism as an anti-intellectual movement continues. However, F. Ernest Stoeffler is no longer the lone voice of dissent. Pietism has been put in a new light which shows the movement’s theological and intellectual originals and subsequent influences. This reversal in Pietism studies can be found in works such as Carter Lindberg’s The Pietist Theologians, The Pietist Impulse in Christianity, edited by Christian T. Collins Winn and et al, and most recently in Roger Olson’s Reclaiming Pietism.

An important work in this revision is Douglas H. Shantz’s An Introduction to German Pietism (Baltimore: John Hopkins, 2013; source: publisher). I will speak to the merits of the work below, but suffice it to say, Shantz’s volume is welcomed study that addresses a vast amount of information without compromising its careful attention to detail.

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Is it Possible to Address the Entirety of Church History in a Single Volume?: A Review of Brian Cosby’s God’s Story

 Brian Cosby, God's Story: A Student's Guide to Church HistoryThe challenges of addressing the entirety of church history within a single volume are well-known. Certain events must be passed over and discussions shelved for another time. Yet, if too much material is bypassed, we are left with an unbalanced history that fails to relate the flow and development of church history.

God’s Story: A Student’s Guide to Church History is Brian Cosby’s attempt at tackling this challenge. Not only does Cosby address the church from the Old Testament to the present, he does so in a concise volume intended for a brief read. In addition, his work is intended for the young, adding an additional level of difficulty.

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Hoon J. Lee

Hoon J. Lee: Theological Studies, Historical Theology, Church History.My area of study is religion in the Enlightenment. I can never turn down a book on Johann Georg Hamann! I also enjoy the study of biblical interpretation throughout the history of Christianity.  I have a PhD in Theological Studies/Church History (Historical Theology) from Trinity Evangelical Divinity School. In 2011, I was given the opportunity to spend the summer at the Herzog August Bibliothek, in Wolfenbüttel, Germany, as a Günther Findel-Stiftung Fellow. I have also served as an assistant pastor at Canaan Presbyterian Church (Glenview, Il) and an officer for Elijah Foundation, a non-profit organization which supports orphanages in southeast Asia. I am blessed to have a loving wife, who teaches in Chicago Public Schools, and the recent addition of our son. As a native Chicagoan, I spend my time exploring the various nooks and crannies and eating my way through the city.

Here are my blog posts.

Articles

  • “Accommodation: Orthodox, Socinian, and Contemporary” Westminster Theological Journal 75, no. 2 (Fall 2013): 335-348.

Presentations

  • “Love, Sex, and the Image of God: The Mystery of Marriage according to Johann Georg Hamann” Evangelical Theological Society Midwest Meeting 2015
  • “The Doctrine of Accommodation in Eighteenth–Century Exegesis: A Debate Concerning the Extent to which Jesus Accommodated in His Teaching Ministry” Evangelical Theological Society Midwest Meeting 2014
  • “Socrates, Enlightenment, and Metacriticism: Johann Georg Hamann on Kantian Reason,” Evangelical Theological Society Midwest Meeting 2013
  • “Accommodation Confused: How Accommodation Was Understood Throughout the History of the Church and Where It Has Gone Wrong Today,” Evangelical Theological Society National Meeting 2012

Popular Articles

Op-ed series, The Weekly Korea, 2003

Book Reviews  

I have written book reviews for Plurilogue, Reviews in Religion and Theology, Journal of Religious History, Journal of Theological Studies, Fides et Historia, Themelios, and Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society

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